Unfair commercial practices and vulnerability of consumers in the digital marketplace





online unfair commercial practices against consumers, digital consumer, digital vulnerability, aggressive psychological pressure, undue influence


Digital innovations are transforming markets by changing the way how goods and services are being produced and sold as well as the content itself generated by consumers. In the digital market, algorithms provide personalised services, and, in this context, comfort functions tailored to consumer needs. In addition, data-driven technologies enable businesses to micro-target consumers with advertising and personalised offers, monitor competitors’ prices more easily, and provide personalised services based on positive product reviews reflecting previous shopping experiences, however, the additional (consumer protection) risks of these practices need to be addressed through state intervention. From this collection of complex problems, this paper focuses on unacceptable online commercial practices in business-to-consumer relations in light of the Booking.com case.