The Fundamental Aspects of Ferro-Alloy Production from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries by Reduction Using Calcium-Aluminate Slags


  • István B. Illés University of Miskolc, Advanced Materials and Intelligent Technologies Higher Education and Industrial Cooperation Centre
  • Tamás Kékesi University of Miskolc, Institute of Metallurgy



Li-ion battery, recycling, ferroalloys, slag


The production of ferro-alloys from waste Li-ion batteries has been examined thermosdynamically and experimentally. It was found that Co and Ni can be reduced even with relatively low pCO/pCO2 ratios in the gas phase, while the reduction of Mn or Fe requires strongly reducing conditions and higher temperatures. Even the reduction and selective recovery of Li are thermodynamically possible due to the possible evaporation. The optimum slag compositions were evaluated theoretically, followed by an experimental investigation. Ferrocobalt, ferrocobalt-nickel and ferrocobalt-nickelmanganese were produced using calcium-magnesium-ferrite type slags. Furthermore, secondary Al dross – containing Al – was also tested both as a reducing and a slag-forming agent for the production of ferrocobalt and ferromanganese affiné.


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How to Cite

Illés, I. B., & Kékesi, T. (2023). The Fundamental Aspects of Ferro-Alloy Production from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries by Reduction Using Calcium-Aluminate Slags. Hungarian Materials and Chemical Sciences and Engineering, 47(1), 79–87.