A Nationwide Assessment of Kuwaitis’ Compliance with Preventative Measures During the COVID-19 Epidemic





COVID-19, Protective practices, Preventive practices, Pandemics


The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching consequences for world health, economics, and society. To prevent the virus's spread, non-pharmacological therapies such as social distancing, mask-wearing, and cleanliness practices have been employed. The purpose of this study was to analyze the Kuwaiti population's adherence to precautionary measures during the epidemic. A cross-sectional study was carried out with the use of a self-administered online questionnaire issued to Kuwaitis aged 18 and up. The questionnaire included demographic questions as well as questions on preventative behaviors. Descriptive statistics, chi-square analysis, and multivariate regression analysis were used to examine the data. The findings revealed that 54.8% of individuals had good behaviors, with hand cleanliness being the most prevalent and eating a healthy diet being the least common. Chronic illnesses, a history of COVID-19 infection, and the COVID-19 vaccine were all linked to practice levels. Regression analysis demonstrated that COVID-19 infection enhanced the likelihood of adherence to preventative measures considerably. The data indicate that, while a sizable majority of the Kuwaiti population engaged in beneficial activities, there is still space for improvement, particularly in terms of adopting a better diet. Future efforts should concentrate on marketing and educating the public about the relevance of COVID-19 prevention measures.

Author Biographies

Abrar Ghaith, University of Debrecen

PhD Researcher, Faculty of Economics and Business

Islam Alghreiz, Jaber Al-Ahmad Armed Forces Hospital, Kuwait

Clinical Pharmacist

Tayseer Afifi, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan

Master Student, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry


Abouzid, M., El-Sherif, D. M., Eltewacy, N. K., Dahman, N. B. H., Okasha, S. A., Ghozy, S., & Islam, S. M. S. (2021). Influence of COVID-19 on lifestyle behaviors in the Middle East and North Africa Region: a survey of 5896 individuals. Journal of translational medicine,19, 129. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-02767-9

Ackerley, L., Cooper, S., Upson, S., Paskey, A. Gent, L. Buckley, C., Spitzer, M. E., Sexton, J. D., Picton, J. L., & Reynolds, K. A. (2023). Who touched that? Interconnection of high-touch surfaces drives pathogen spread in public spaces. European Journal of Public Health, 33(Supplement_2), ckad160-995. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckad160.995

Al Ahdab, SA. (2021). A cross-sectional survey of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) towards COVID-19 pandemic among the Syrian residents. BMC Public Health, 2021(February), 296. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10353-3

Al-Tawfiq, J. A., & Memish, Z. A. (2020). COVID-19 in the Eastern Mediterranean Region and Saudi Arabia: prevention and therapeutic strategies. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 55(5), 105968. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105968

Al-Tawfiq, J. A., Sattar, A., Al-Khadra, H., Al-Qahtani, S., Al-Mulhim, M., Al-Omoush, O., & Kheir, H. O. (2020). Incidence of COVID-19 among returning travelers in quarantine facilities: a longitudinal study and lessons learned. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 38, 101901. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101901

Ammi, M., Desson, Z. W., & Doumbia, M. Z. (2024). Non-pharmaceutical interventions and vaccination during COVID-19 in Canada: Implications for COVID and non-COVID outcomes. Health Policy and Technology, 13(1), 100801. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlpt.2023.100801

Askitas, N., Tatsiramos, K., & Verheyden, B. (2021). Estimating worldwide effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions on COVID-19 incidence and population mobility patterns using a multiple-event study. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1972. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81442-x

Baygut, H. (2022). Depression Levels of University Students and Changes in their Nutritional Status in the COVID-19 Pandemic Quarantine Period: A study in Turkey. Progress in Nutrition, 24(2), e2022078. https://doi.org/10.23751/pn.v24i2.12539

Bhatia, G., Dutta, P. K., & McClure, J. (2022a, July 15). Kuwait: The Latest Coronavirus Counts, charts and maps. Reuters. Retrieved from: https://www.reuters.com/graphics/world-coronavirus-tracker-and-maps/countries-and-territories/kuwait/ on 19th of June, 2024.

Boyer, C. B., Rumpler, E., Kissler, S. M., & Lipsitch, M. (2022). Infectious disease dynamics and restrictions on social gathering size. Epidemics, 40, 100620. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epidem.2022.100620

Chacón, F. R., Doval, J. M., Rodríguez, V. I., Quintero, A., Mendoza, D. L., Mejía, M. D., Omaña, O. D., Contreras, M. B., Gasparini, S., González, C. J., Camejo-Ávila, N. A., Romero, S. R., Flora-Noda, D. M., Maricuto, A. L., Velásquez, V. L., Guevara, R. N., Carballo, M., Caldera, J., Redondo, M. C., Landaeta, M. E., Carrión-Nessi, F. S., & Forero-Peña, D. A. (2021). Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to COVID-19 among patients at Hospital Universitario de Caracas triage tent: A cross-sectional study. Biomédica, 41(2), 48-61. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.5808

Chu, D. K., Akl, E. A., Duda, S., Solo, K., Yaacoub, S., Schünemann, H. J. on behalf of the COVID-19 Systematic Urgent Review Group Effort (SURGE) study authors (2020). Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet, 395(10242), 1973-1987. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31142-9

Dean, A. G., Sullivan, K. M., & Soe, M. M. (2010). Epi Info and OpenEpi in epidemiology and clinical medicine: health applications of free software. CreateSpace.

Demirbilek, M. (2021). The effect of school/workplace closures on COVID-19 related incidents. Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi, 2021(23), 62-69. https://doi.org/10.31590/ejosat.842793

Fazio, R. H., Ruisch, B. C., Moore, C. A., Granados Samayoa, J. A., Boggs, S. T., & Ladanyi, J. T. (2021). Social distancing decreases an individual's likelihood of contracting COVID-19. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(8), e2023131118. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2023131118

Feng, S., Shen, C., Xia, N., Song, W., Fan, M., & Cowling, B. J. (2020). Rational use of face masks in the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8(5), 434–436. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30134-X

Fowler, J. H., Hill, S. J., Levin, R., & Obradovich, N. (2021). Stay-at-home orders associate with subsequent decreases in COVID-19 cases and fatalities in the United States. PloS One, 16(6), e0248849. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0248849

Freeman, D., Loe, B. S., Chadwick, A., Vaccari, C., Waite, F., Rosebrock, L., Jenner, L., Petit, A., Lewandowsky, S., Vanderslott, S., Innocenti, S., Larkin, M., Giubilini, A., Yu, L-M., McShane, H., Pollard, A. J., & Lambe, S. (2022). COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the UK: the Oxford coronavirus explanations, attitudes, and narratives survey (Oceans) II. Psychological Medicine, 52(14), 3127–3141. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720005188

He, X., Lau, E. H., Wu, P., Deng, X., Wang, J., Hao, X., Lau, Y. C., Wong, J. Y., Guan, Y., Tan, X., Mo, X., Chen, Y., Liao, B., Chen, W., Hu, F., Zhang, Q., Zhong, M., Wu, Y., Zhao, L., Zhang, F., Cowling, B. J., Li, F., & Leung, G. M. (2020). Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19. Nature Medicine, 26(5), 672-675. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0869-5

Isah, M. B., Abdulsalam, M., Bello, A, Usman A. R., Ibrahim, M. I, Usman, A., Nasir, A., Abdulkadir, B., Ibrahim, K. M., Sani, A., Aliu, M., Kabir, S. A., Shuaibu, A., & Nass, S. S (2021). Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Cross-Sectional Survey of the Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices (KAP) and Misconceptions in the General Population of Katsina State, Nigeria. UMYU Journal of Microbiology Research (UJMR), 6(1), 24–37. https://doi.org/10.47430/ujmr.2161.004

Jones, N. R., Qureshi, Z. U., Temple, R. J., Larwood, J. P., Greenhalgh, T., & Bourouiba, L. (2020). Two metres or one: what is the evidence for physical distancing in Covid-19? BMJ, 2020(370), m3223. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3223

Kundrapu, S., Sunkesula, V., Jury, L. A., Sitzlar, B. M., & Donskey, C. J. (2012). Daily disinfection of high-touch surfaces in isolation rooms to reduce contamination of healthcare workers' hands. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 33(10), 1039-1042. https://doi.org/10.1086/667730

Kuwait. Worldometer. Retrieved 19th of June, 2024 from: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/country/kuwait/

Kyei-Arthur, F., Agyekum, M. W., Afrifa-Anane, G. F., Larbi, R. T., & Kisaakye, P. (2023). Perceptions about COVID-19 preventive measures among Ghanaian women. Plos One, 18(4), e0284362. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0284362

Lashkarbolouk, N., Mazandarani, M., Pourghazi, F., Eslami, M., Khonsari, N. M., Ghonbalani, Z. N., Ejtahed, H. S., & Qorbani, M. (2022). How did lockdown and social distancing policies change the eating habits of diabetic patients during the COVID-19 pandemic? A systematic review. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 1002665. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.1002665

León, T. M., Vargo, J., Pan, E. S., Jain, S., & Shete, P. B. (2021). Nonpharmaceutical interventions remain essential to reducing coronavirus disease 2019 burden even in a well-vaccinated society: A modeling study. Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 8(9), ofab415. https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofab415

Liu, F., Luo, Z., Li, Y., Zheng, X., Zhang, C., & Qian, H. (2021). Revisiting physical distancing threshold in indoor environment using infection-risk-based modeling. Environment International, 153, 106542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106542

MacDonald, N. E. (2015). Vaccine hesitancy: Definition, scope and determinants. Vaccine, 33(34), 4161–4164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.04.036

Masoud, A. T., Zaazouee, M. S., Elsayed, S. M., Ragab, K. M., Kamal, E. M., Alnasser, Y. T., Assar, A., Nourelden, A. Z., Istatiah, L. J., Abd-Elgawad, M., Abdelsattar, A.T., Sofy, A. A., Hegazy, D. G., Femía, V. Z., Mendonça, A. R., Sayed, F. M., Elmoursi, A., Alareidi, A., Abd-Eltawab, A. K., Abdelmonem, M., Mohammed, O. M., Derballa, EE. A., El-Fas, K. A., Abdel-Daim, M. M., & Abushouk, A. I. (2021). KAP-COVID GLOBAL: a multinational survey of the levels and determinants of public knowledge, attitudes and practices towards COVID-19. BMJ Open, 11(2), e043971. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-043971

Mendez-Brito, A., El Bcheraoui, C., & Pozo-Martin, F. (2021). Systematic review of empirical studies comparing the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions against COVID-19. Journal of Infection, 83(3), 281-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2021.06.018

Nazzal, Z., Maraqa, B., Banat, L., Kittaneh, M., Maa'li, Y., & Al-Shobaki, S. (2022). The practice of COVID-19 preventive measures in Palestine on the limits of vaccine provision: a population-based study. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 16(01), 81-89. https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.15013

Paules, C. I., Marston, H. D., & Fauci, A. S. (2020). Coronavirus infections — More than just the common cold. JAMA, 323(8), 707-708. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.0757

Peters, J. A., & Farhadloo, M. (2023). The Effects of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions on COVID-19 Cases, Hospitalizations, and Mortality: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis. AJPM Focus, 2(4), 100125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.focus.2023.100125

Pitol, A. K., & Julian, T. R. (2021). Community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by surfaces: risks and risk reduction strategies. Environmental Science & Technology Letters, 8(3), 263-269. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.0c00966

Rajbanshi, M., Bhusal, S., Paudel, K., Poudel, B., Gaire, A., Khatri, E., Kalauni, B. R., Aryal, B., Sharma, G., & Karki, N. (2022). Knowledge, attitude, and practice of Nepalese residents in the prevention and control of COVID-19: A cross-sectional web-based survey. Annals of Medicine and Surgery, 84, 104861. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2022.104861

Saeed, B. Q., Al-Shahrabi, R., & Bolarinwa, O. A. (2021a). Socio-demographic correlate of knowledge and practice toward COVID-19 among people living in Mosul-Iraq: A cross-sectional study. Plos One, 16(3), e0249310. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0249310

Saeed, B. Q., Elbarazi, I., Barakat, M., Adrees, A. O., & Fahady, K. S. (2021b). COVID-19 health awareness among the United Arab Emirates population. Plos One, 16(9), e0255408. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0255408

Salameh, B., Basha, S., Basha, W., & Abdallah, J. (2021). Knowledge, Perceptions, and Prevention Practices among Palestinian University Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Questionnaire-Based Survey. Inquiry. The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing, 58(January-December), 0046958021993944. https://doi.org/10.1177/0046958021993944

Shaw, R., Kim, Y. K., & Hua, J. (2020). Governance, technology and citizen behavior in a pandemic: Lessons from COVID-19 in East Asia. Progress in Disaster Science, 6, 100090. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pdisas.2020.100090

Shrestha, N., Shad, M. Y., Ulvi, O., Khan, M. H., Karamehic-Muratovic, A., Nguyen, U. S. D., Baghbanzadeh, M., Wardrup, R., Aghamohammadi, N., Cervantes, D., Nahiduzzaman, K., Zaki, R. A., & Haque, U. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on globalization. One Health, 11, 100180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100180

Sidor, A., & Rzymski, P. (2020). Dietary Choices and Habits during COVID-19 Lockdown: Experience from Poland. Nutrients, 12(6), 1657. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100180

Wang, C., Horby, P. W., Hayden, F. G., & Gao, G. F. (2020). A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. The Lancet, 395(10223), 470–473. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30185-9

World Health Organization. Advice for the public on COVID-19. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public on 19th of June, 2024.

World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). World Health Organization. Retrieved 19th of June, 2024 from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/coronavirus-disease-(COVID-19)

World Health Organization. COVID-19 cases | WHO COVID-19 Dashboard. World Health Organization. Retrieved 19th of June, 2024 from: https://data.who.int/dashboards/covid19/cases?n=c

World Health Organization. COVID-19 deaths | who covid-19 dashboard. World Health Organization. Retrieved 19th of June, 2024 from: https://data.who.int/dashboards/covid19/deaths?n=c

World Health Organization. COVID-19vaccines | who covid-19 dashboard. World Health Organization. Retrieved 19th of June, 2024 from: https://data.who.int/dashboards/covid19/vaccines?n=c

Xu, Z., Shi, L., Wang, Y., Zhang, J., Huang, L., Zhang, C., Liu, S., Zhao, P., Liu, H., Zhu, L., Tai, Y., Bai, C., Gao, T., Song, J., Xia, P., Dong, J., Zhao, J., & Wang, F. S. (2020). Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8(4), 420-422. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30076-X

Yang, X., Yu, Y., Xu, J., Shu, H., Liu, H., Wu, Y., Zhang, L., Yu, Z., Fang, M., Yu, T., Wang, Y., Pan, S., Zou, X., Yuan, S., & Shang, Y. (2020). Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8(5), 475-481. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30079-5

Yatmo, Y. A., Atmodiwirjo, P., & Harahap, M. M. Y. (2020). Hand touches on the surfaces of a healthcare waiting area. The Journal of Hospital Infection, 105(2), 383-385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2020.04.042

Zhang, Y. Z., & Holmes, E. C. (2020). A genomic perspective on the origin and emergence of SARS-CoV-2. Cell, 181(2), 223-227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.03.035

Zhou, M., Zhang, X., & Qu, J. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a clinical update. Frontiers of Medicine, 14(2), 126-135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0767-8

Zviedrite, N., Hodis, J. D., Jahan, F., Gao, H., & Uzicanin, A. (2021). COVID-19-associated school closures and related efforts to sustain education and subsidized meal programs, United States, February 18–June 30, 2020. PloS One, 16(9), e0248925. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0248925




How to Cite

Ghaith, A., Alghreiz, I., & Afifi, T. (2024). A Nationwide Assessment of Kuwaitis’ Compliance with Preventative Measures During the COVID-19 Epidemic. Theory, Methodology, Practice – Review of Business and Management, 20(01), 63–75. https://doi.org/10.18096/TMP.2024.01.07