Institutional Determinants of Higher Education Students’ International Mobility within the Erasmus Programme Countries
Keywords:Erasmus, higher education, student mobility, culture, institutions
One of the major EU policy objectives is to enhance the international mobility of students. The Leuven Communiqué published in 2009 set an objective of increasing the ratio of European Higher Education Area (EHEA) higher education graduates participating in a study or a training period abroad to at least 20% by 2020. However, currently the majority of European Union Member States perform significantly below the target in this respect. Also, since a low number of
students are interested in mobility programmes, the funds of the Erasmus-type student mobility programs remain unused.
This study focuses on highlighting the factors that represent barriers to student participation in mobility programs. After conducting a literature review on international student mobility and presenting major statistics describing outbound mobility, this study investigates factors related to institutional components of the higher education system that affect the international mobility of Erasmus young people. Among the explanatory factors related to Erasmus-type student mobility, cultural factors including Hofstede’s indulgence and uncertainty avoidance seem to have the greatest influence on student
mobility intentions in Europe. The findings revealed that better planned Erasmus processes (pre-, during and postmobility activities such as departure, course choice, staying in a host country, etc.) and better communicated career opportunities and labour market values of the mobility could considerably contribute to an increase in the number of outbound students. One of the main lessons learned from the conducted analyses is that Europe’s rich cultural diversity needs to be considered in the course of promoting the Erasmus Programme in Europe. In addition to adopting common communication, promotion and direction strategies, programmes need to be elaborated that take national specificities into account.
AGOSTINI, C. & CAPANO, G. (2013): Education policy: comparing EU developments and national policies. In. Natali, D. -Vanhercke, B. (eds.): Social developments in the European Union 2012 – Fourteenth annual report. European Trade Union Institute (ETUI) - European Social Observatory (OSE), Brussels, pp. 147-180.
FARA AZMAT, F., OSBORNE, A., ROSSIGNOL, K.L., JOGULU, U., RENTSCHLER, R., ROBOTTOM, I. & MALATHY, V. (2013): Understanding aspirations and expectations of international students in Australian higher education, Asia Pacific Journal of Education, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2012.751897
BARTHA Z., S. GUBIK A. ÉS RÉTHI G. (2017): A nemzetközi hallgatói mobilitás területi irányai és akadályai a Miskolci Egyetemen (Geographical directions and barriers of international student mobility at the University of Miskolc). Tér és Társadalom, 31(4), pp. 181-194. https://doi.org/10.17649/tet.31.4.2886
BOLOGNA DECLARATION (1999): Joint declaration of the European Ministers of Education. http://www.ehea.info/media.ehea.info/file/Ministerial_conferences/02/8/1999_Bologna_Declaration_English_553028.pdf (Downloaded: 19 February 2018)
BRACHT, O., ENGEL, C., JANSON, K., OVER, A., SCHOMBURG, H. - TEICHLER, U. (2006): The professional value of ERASMUS mobility. International Centre for Higher Education Research, University of Kassel.
BRYLA, P. - CIABIADA, B. (2014): Obstacles to International Student Mobility: the case of Poland. Trends Journal of Sciences Research, 1(1), pp. 12-16. https://doi.org/10.31586/politicalstudies.0101.02
COX, P.L., FRIEDMAN, B.A., & TRIBUNELLA, T. (2011): Relationships among Cultural Dimensions, National Gross Domestic Product, and Environmental Sustainability. Journal of Applied Business and Economics vol. 12(6) 2011
EB (2014): The Erasmus Impact Study. Effects of mobility on the skills and employability of students and the internationalisation of higher education institutions.
http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/repository/education/library/study/2014/erasmus-impact_en.pdf (Downloaded: 2 March 2018)
EB (2015): Erasmus+ Programme - Annual Report 2014. http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/repository/education/library/statistics/erasmus-plus-annual-report_en.pdf (Downloaded: 19 February 2018)
EB (2017): Erasmus+ Programme - Annual Report 2016. https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus-plus/resources/documents/erasmus-annual-report-2016_en (Downloaded: 19 February 2018)
Engel, C. (2010): The impact of Erasmus mobility on the professional career: Empirical results of international studies on temporary student and teaching staff mobility. Belgian Journal of Geography, 2010(4), pp. 351–363. https://doi.org/10.4000/belgeo.6399
ESS (2016): Sampling Guidelines: Principles and Implementation for the European Social Survey. ESS ERIC Headquarters, London.
EUROBAROMETER (2006): Europeans and their Languages. Special Eurobarometer 243. European Comission http://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/archives/ebs/ebs_243_en.pdf
EUROBAROMETER (2009): Students and Higher Education Reform - Special Target Survey. Flash Eurobarometer Series #260, http://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/flash/fl_260_en.pdf (Downloaded: 2 March 2018)
EUROBAROMETER (2012): Europeans and their languages. Special Eurobarometer 386. http://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/archives/ebs/ebs_386_en.pdf (Downloaded: 19 Fenruary 2018)
GALLUP (2011): Youth on the move. Flash EB Series #319b. http://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/flash/fl_319b_en.pdf (Downloaded: 10 Fenruary 2018)
GOLOB, T. - MAKAROVIC, M. (2018): Student Mobility and Transnational Social Ties as Factors of Reflexivity. Social Sciences, 7(3), 46, https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7030046
HAUSCHILDT, K., GWOSC, K., NETZ, N. - MISHRA, S. (2015): Social and Economic Conditions of Student Life in Europe. EUROSTUDENT V 2012–2015 | Synopsis of Indicators. W. Bertelsmann Verlag, Bielefeld. https://www.uhr.se/globalassets/_uhr.se/lika-mojligheter/eurostudent/evsynopsisofindicators.pdf (Downloaded: 2 March 2018)
HOFSTEDE, G. (2001): Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations. Second Edition. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks CA.
HOFSTEDE INSIGHTS (2018): National Culture. https://www.hofstede-insights.com/models/national-culture/ (Downloaded: 2 March 2018)
KEHM, B. (2005): The contribution of international student mobility to human development and global understanding. US-China Education Review, 2(1), pp. 18–24.
KELO, M., ROGERS, T. - RUMBLEY, L. E. (2010): International student support in European higher education. ACA papers on International Higher Education. Lemmens, Bonn.
KLAHR, S. - RATTI, U. (2000): Increasing engineering student participation in study abroad: A study of U.S. and European programs. Journal of Studies in International Education, 4(1), pp. 79–102. https://doi.org/10.1177/102831530000400106
LEUVEN COMMUNIQUE (2009): http://www.ehea.info/media.ehea.info/file/2009_Leuven_Louvain-la-Neuve/06/1/Leuven_Louvain-la-Neuve_Communique_April_2009_595061.pdf (Downloaded: 19 February 2018)
OLIVEIRA, A. L. - FREITAS, M. E (2016): Motivations for International Academic Mobility: The Perspective of University Students and Professors. Educação em Revista, 32(3), http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-4698148237
PALKOVICS L. (2016): A felsőoktatásért felelős államtitkár sajtótájékoztatója a Miskolci Egyetemen a Campus Mundi programról (Press conference of the undersecretary responsible for education on the Campus Mundi programme atthe University of Miskolc). http://www.uni_miskolc.hu/hirek/799/sajtotajekoztaton_mutatta_be_palkovics_laszlo_allamtitkar_a_campus_mundi_programot (Downloaded: 19 February 2018)
SANCHEZ, C. M., FORNERINO, M. - ZHANG, M. (2006): Motivations and the intent to study abroad among U.S. French and Chinese students. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 18(1), pp. 27–52. https://doi.org/10.1300/j066v18n01_03
SOUTO-OTERO, M., HUISMAN, J., BEERKENS, M., DE WIT, H. - VUJIC, S. (2013): Barriers to International Student
Mobility Evidence From the Erasmus Program. Educational Researcher, 42(2), pp. 70-77. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189x12466696
TEICHLER, U., FERENCZ, I., WÄCHTER, B., RUMBLEY, L., BÜRGER S. (2011): Mapping mobility in European higher education. Volume I: Overview and trends. Brussels.
TKA (2017): Növekvő költségvetési források hatékony felhasználása (Efficient use of growing government subsidies). A Tempus Közalapítvány zalakarosi nemzetközi koordinátori találkozójának előadásai, 2017. november 14-16. TKA (2018): Campus Mundi project. http://www.tka.hu/campus-mundi-projekt (Downloaded: 19 February 2018)
VOSSENSTEYN, H., BEERKENS, M., CREMON, L., BESANÇON, B., FOCKEN, N., LEURS, B., MCCOSHAN, A., MOZURAITYTE, N. HUISMAN, J., SOUTO OTERO, M., PIMENTEL BÓTAS, P., DE WIT, H. (2010): Improving the participation in the Erasmus programme. http://opus.bath.ac.uk/21174/1/improving_the_participation_in_the_erasmus_programme_updated_with_my_name_ in_it.pdf (Downloaded: 2 March 2018)
WÄCHTER, B. - MAIWORM, F. (2008): English-taught programmes in European higher education. ACA Papers on International Cooperation In Education. Lemmens, Bonn.