Student perception and the efficacy of universities in shaping the entrepreneurial mindset


  • Andrea S. Gubik University of Miskolc
  • Zoltán Bartha University of Miskolc



entrepreneurship training, entrepreneurial ecosystem, entrepreneurial motivation, higher education


Modern universities may play a significant role in entrepreneurial ecosystems by boosting the entrepreneurial activity of the region. One way to achieve this is through entrepreneurship education. In this study we suggest that one reason why entrepreneurship education has a weak impact on entrepreneurial activity is that the effect of courses and extracurricular programmes depends on how students perceive the entrepreneurial activity. We use the 2018 GUESSS database, which includes 9,667 answers for Hungary, to develop a general linear model. The model suggests that students’ entrepreneurial intentions, attitudes toward entrepreneurship, self-efficacy, social norms, as well as the university, and the field of study all have a small but statistically significant impact on how students perceive the entrepreneurial ecosystem within the university. Our conclusion is that more emphasis on shaping attitudes and arousing student interest can increase the efficiency of entrepreneurship education.

Author Biographies

Andrea S. Gubik, University of Miskolc

Associate Professor

Zoltán Bartha, University of Miskolc

Associate Professor


ACEMOGLU, D. & RESTREPO, P. (2018). Artificial intelligence, automation and work. NBER Working Paper Series. Working Paper 24196,

ÅSTERBRO, T. & BAZZAZIAN, N. (2011). Universities, Entrepreneurship and Local Economic Development. In: Fritsch, M. (ed.), Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, pp. 255-333, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

AUTIO, E. & WENNBERG, K. (2010). You think, therefore, I become: Social attitudes and the transition to entrepreneurship. Paper presented at DRUID Summer Conference 2010, Imperial College London Business School, 16–18 June 2010, London.

BĂDULESCU, A., BĂDULESCU, D., CSINTALAN, CS., & SIMUȚ, R. (2020) Teaching Entrepreneurship: How Prepared are Romanian Educators?. In: Fotea S., Fotea I., Văduva S. (eds) Challenges and Opportunities to Develop Organizations Through Creativity, Technology and Ethics. GSMAC 2019. Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics. Springer, Cham.

BANDURA, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122–147.

BARBA-SÁNCHEZ, V., & ATIENZA-SAHUQUILLO, C. (2018). Entrepreneurial intention among engineering students: The role of entrepreneurship education. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 24(1), pp. 53–61.

BAUMOL, W.J., LITAN, R.E., & Schramm, C.J. (2007). Good capitalism, bad capitalism, and the economics of growth and prosperity. New Haven: Yale University Press.

BERGMANN, H., GEISSLER, M., HUNDT, C., & GRAVE, B. (2018). The climate for entrepreneurship at higher education institutions. Research Policy, 47(4), 700-716.

BLOCK, J., HOOGERHEIDE, L., & THURIK, R. (2013). Education and entrepreneurial choice: An instrumental variables analysis. International Small Business Journal, 31(1), 23-33.

BOSMA, N., HESSELS, J., SCHUTJENS, V., VAN PRAAG, M., & VERHEUL, I. (2012). Entrepreneurship and role models, Journal of Economic Psychology, 33 (2), 410-424.

BRYNJOLFSSON, E. & MCAFEE, A. (2014). The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

CAVALLO, A., GHEZZI, A., & BALOCCO, R. (2019). Entrepreneurial ecosystem research: present debates and future directions. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 15, 1291–1321.

CHEN, C.C., GREENE, P.G., & CRICK, A. (1998). Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers?, Journal of Business Venturing, 13 (4), 295-316.

COSTIN, Y., O'BRIEN, M. P., & SLATTERY, D. M. (2018). Using simulation to develop entrepreneurial skills and mind-set: an exploratory case study. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 30(1), 136 -145.

CSÉPE, V. (2017). A szubjektív biztonság pszichológiai dimenziói (The psychological dimensions of subjective security). In: Finszter, G., Sabjanics, I. (eds) (2017): Biztonsági kihívások a 21. században. p. 275-288. Dialóg Campus, Budapest

FARKAS Z. (2010). Társadalomelmélet. Az intézményes szociológia elmélete (Social Theory. The theory of institutional sociology), volume 2. Miskolc: Bíbor Kiadó

FELD, B. (2012). Startup Communities: Building an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in Your City. New York: Wiley

GRAEVENITZ VON, G., HARHOFF, D., & WEBER, R. (2010). The effects of entrepreneurship education. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 76(1), 90-112.

GUBIK, S.A. (2013). A magyar hallgatók vállalkozásindító szándékát befolyásoló tényezők modellje: Ajzen tervezett magatartás elméletének kiterjesztése (A model of entrepreneurial intentions of Hungarian students: an expantion to Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour). Vezetéstudomány, 44 (7–8), pp. 18-29.

GUBIK, S.A., & Farkas, Sz. (2019). Entrepreneurial Intention in the Visegrad Countries. Danube: Law and Economics Review, 10(4) pp. 347-368.

GUERRERO, M., CUNNINGHAM, J. A., & URBANO, D. (2015). Economic impact of entrepreneurial universities’ activities: an exploratory study of the United Kingdom. Research Policy, 44(3), 748–764.

GUERRERO, M., KIRBY, D., & URBANO, D. (2006). A Literature Review on Entrepreneurial Universities: An Institutional Approach. Autonomous University of Barcelona, Business Economics Department, Working Paper Series, No. 06/8. Retrieved on 21/11/2020 from

HARMS, R. (2015). Self-regulated learning, team learning and project performance in entrepreneurship education: Learning in a lean startup environment. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 100, 21-28.

HAYES, D, SUBHAN, Z., & HERZOG, L. (2020). Assessing and understanding entrepreneurial profiles of undergraduate students: implications of heterogeneity for entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship Education, 3, pp. 151–195.

İLHAN ERTUNA, Z. & GUREL, E. (2011). The moderating role of higher education on entrepreneurship. Education + Training, 53(5), pp. 387-402.

ISENBERG, D. (2011). The Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Strategy as a New Paradigm for Economic Policy: Principles for Cultivating Entrepreneurship. The Babson Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Project. Retrieved on 21/11/2020 from

ISENBERG, D. (2014). What an Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Actually Is. Harvard Business Review, 2014-5, pp. 1-7.

KETSKEMÉTY & IZSÓ, 2005. (2005). Bevezetés az SPSS programrendszerbe. Módszertani útmutató és feladatgyűjtemény statisztikai elemzésekhez. ELTE Eötvös Kiadó

JUHÁSZ, M., & TAKÁCS, I. (2007). Pszichológia. Typotex, Budapest

KICKUL, J., & FAYOLLE, A. (2007). Cornerstones of change: revisiting and challenging new perspectives on research in entrepreneurship education. In: Fayolle, A. (ed.) Handbook of Research in Entrepreneurship Education, Volume 1: A General Perspective. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited

KOLTAI, S. R. & MUSPRATT, M. (2016). Peace Through Entrepreneurship. Investing in a Startup Culture for Security and Development. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.

KOLVEREID, L. & MOEN, Ø. (1997), Entrepreneurship among business graduates: does a major in entrepreneurship make a difference? Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 21 No. 4, pp. 154-160.

KOPPL, R., KAUFFMAN, S., FELIN, T. & LONGO, J. (2015). Economics for a creative world. Journal of Institutional Economics, 11(1), pp. 1-31.

LASPITA, S., BREUGST, N., HEBLICH, S., & PATZELT, H. (2012). Intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 27 (4), 414-435.

LIÑÁN, F. & CHEN, Y-W. (2009). Development and Cross-Cultural Application of a Specific Instrument to Measure Entrepreneurial Intentions. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 33 (3), 593-617.

MA, Z. (2019). Business ecosystem modeling- the hybrid of system modeling and ecological modeling: an application of the smart grid. Energy Informatics 2, 35. pp. 1-24.

MASON, C., & ARSHED, N. (2013). Teaching entrepreneurship to university students through experiential learning: A case study. Industry and Higher Education, 27(6), 449-463.

MASON, C. & BROWN, R. (2013). Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Growth Oriented Entrepreneurship. Background paper for OECD LEED,

MOORE, J. (1993). Predators and Prey: A New Ecology of Competition. Harvard Business Review. 1993 May.

OBSCHONKA, M., HAKKARAINEN, K., LONKA, K. & SALMELA-ARO, K. (2017). Entrepreneurship as a twenty-first century skill: entrepreneurial alertness and intention in the transition to adulthood. Small Business Economics, 48, pp. 487–501.

PRÜFER, J. & PRÜFER, P. (2020). Data science for entrepreneurship research: studying demand dynamics for entrepreneurial skills in the Netherlands. Small Business Economics, 55, pp. 651-672.

RICE, M. P., FETTERS, M. L., & GREENE, P. G. (2014). University-based entrepreneurship ecosystems: a global study of six educational institutions. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 18(5-6), pp. 481-501.

SÁNCHEZ‐BARRIOLUENGO, M., UYARRA, E., & KITAGAWA, F. (2019). Understanding the evolution of the entrepreneurial university. The case of English Higher Education institutions. Higher Education Quarterly, 73, pp. 469-495.

SCHUTZ, A. (1962). Collected Papers I.: The Problem of Social Reality. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff

SOLOMON, G.T., WEAVER, K.M., FERNALD, L.W. (1994) A historical examination of small business management and entrepreneurship pedagogy. Simulation and Gaming, 25, 338-52.

SZERB, L. & LUKOVSZKI, L. (2013). Magyar egyetemi hallgatók vállalkozási attitűdjei és az attitűdöket befolyásoló tényezők elemzése a GUESSS -felmérés adatai alapján. Kik is akarnak ténylegesen vállalkozni? (The entrepreneurial attitude of Hungarian university students, and factors affecting this attitude; an analysis based on the data from the GUESS survey. Who are the ones who want to start a business for real? Vezetéstudomány, 44. 7–8. 30–40.

WEF (2014). Entrepreneurial Ecosystems Around the Globe and Early-Stage Company Growth Dynamics. World Economic Forum. Retrieved on 21/11/2020 from

ZACHARAKIS, A., SHEPARD, D. & COOMBS, J. (2003). The development of venture-capita-backed internet companies: An ecosystem perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(2), pp. 217-231.




How to Cite

S. Gubik, A. ., & Bartha, Z. (2021). Student perception and the efficacy of universities in shaping the entrepreneurial mindset. Theory, Methodology, Practice - Review of Business and Management, 17(Special Issue), 65–76.

Most read articles by the same author(s)